Omta, A.W., D. Talmy, D. Sher, Z.V. Finkel, A.J. Irwin, M.J. Follows, Extracting phytoplankton physiological traits from batch and chemostat culture data, Limnology & Oceanography: Methods (accepted)

In Revision

Benoiston, A.-S., F.M. Ibarbalz, L. Bittner, L. Guidi, O. Jahn, S. Dutkiewicz and C. Bowler.
The evolution of diatoms and their biogeochemical functions.
In revision for Proceedings of the Royal Society

Clayton, S., S. Dutkiewicz, O. Jahn. C.N. Hill, P. Heimbach, and M.J. Follows:
Biogeochemical versus ecological consequences of modeled ocean physics.
In revision for Biogeosciences

Follett, C.L., S. Dutkiewicz, and M. Follows.
Why do diatom-diazotroph association bloom in the North Pacific subtropical summer?
In revision for ISME Journal

Manuscripts in Review

Omta, A.W., R.E.M. Rickaby, J.M. Lauderdale, I.R. Hall, M.J. Follows, On the origin and implications of three rapid methane release events during the last deglaciation. In review for Earth & Planetary Science Letters.


Braakman, R., M.J. Follows and S.W. Chisholm (2017), Metabolic evolution and the self-organization of ecosystems, Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci., doi: 10.1073/pnas.1619573114

Bracher, A., H. Bouman, R. Brewin, A. Bricaud, V. Brotas, A.M. Ciotti, L. Clementson, E. Devred, A. Di Cicco, S. Dutkiewicz, N. Hardman-Mountford, A. Hickmann, M. Hieronymi, T. Hirata, S. Loza, C.B. Mouw, E. Organelli, D. Raitsos, J. Uitz, M. Vogt, A. Wolanin (2017),
Obtaining Phytoplankton Diversity from Ocean Color: A Scientific Roadmap for Future DevelopmentFrontiers in Marine Science, 4:55, doi: 10.3389/fmars.2017.00055


Mohammad D. Ashkezari, Christopher N. Hill, Christopher N. Follett, Gaël Forget, Michael J. Follows (2016), Oceanic eddy detection and lifetime forecast using machine learning methods: Oceanic eddies and machine learningGeophysical Research Letters, doi: 10.1002/2016GL071269

Barton, A.D., S. Dutkiewicz, K.H. Andersen, O. Fiksen, M. Follows, C. Mouw, N. Record, and T. Rynearson (2016), Report on the Trait-based approaches to ocean life scoping workshop, October 5-8, 2015, U.S. Ocean Carbon and Biogeochemistry Program, 35 pp., doi: 10.1575/1912/8017

B.B. Cael, and Michael J. Follows (2016), On the Temperature Dependence of Oceanic Export EfficiencyGeophys. Res. Lett., 43, doi: 10.1002/2016GL068877

B.B. Cael (2016), New Satellites Paint a Portrait of Plankton Spatial VariabilityOcean Carbon and Biogeochemistry News, Vol. 9, number 1, Spring 2016 (pdf)

Chien, C.-T., K.R.M. Mackey, S. Dutkiewicz, N.M. Mahowald, J.M. Prospero, and A. Paytan.
Effects of atmospheric dry deposition on phytoplankton downwind of the Sahara dust plume in the Western tropical Atlantic Ocean off Barbados, Global Biogeochemical Cycles,  doi: 10.1002/2015GB005334

Clayton, S., Y-C. Lin, M.J. Follows and A. Worden (2016), Co-occurrence of Ostreococcus clades in the Kuroshio, Limnol. & Oceanogr., doi: 10.1002/lno.10373

Finkel, Zoe F., Mick J. Follows, Jusitin D. Liefer, Chris M. Brown, Ina Benner, and John J. Irwin (2016), Phylogenetic Diversity in the Macromolecular Composition of Microalgae, PLoS ONE, doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0155977

Finkel, Z.V., M.J. Follows, A.J. Irwin (2016), Size-scaling of macromolecules and chemical energy content in the eukaryotic microalgae,  J Plank. Res. 38: 1151-1162, doi: 10.1093/plankt/fbw057

Lionel Guidi ei al. (2016), Plankton networks driving carbon export in the oligotrophic oceanNature 532, 465–470 (28 April 2016) doi: 10.1038/nature16942

Grossowich, M., D. Roth-Rosenberg, D. Aharonovich, J. Silverman, M.J. Follows and D. Sher (2016), Prochlorococcus in the lab and in silico: the importance of representing exudation., Limnol. and Oceanogr., doi: 10.1002/lno.10463

Keisuke Inomura, Jason Bragg and Michael J Follows (2016), A quantitative analysis of the direct and indirect costs of nitrogen fixation: a model based on Azotobacter vinelandii, The ISME Journal, doi: 10.1038/ismej.2016.97

Knoll, A.H., and M.J. Follows (2016), A bottom up perspective on ecosystem change in the Mesozoic ocean, Proc. Roy. Soc. B., 283: 20161755, doi: 10.1098/rspb.2016.1755

Lauderdale, J., S. Dutkiewicz, R. Williams, and M.J. Follows (2016),
Quantifying the drivers of ocean-atmosphere CO2 fluxesGlobal Biogeochemical Cycles, 30, 983-999, doi: 10.1002/2016GB005400

Johann S. Lopez, Nathan S. Garcia, David Talmy, and Adam C. Martiny (2016), Diel variability in the elemental composition of the marine cyanobacterium SynechococcusJ. Plankton Res.,  0: 1–10, doi: 10.1093/plankt/fbv120

Fanny M. Monteiro, Lennart T. Bach, Colin Brownlee, Paul Bown, Rosalind E. M. Rickaby, Alex J. Poulton, Toby Tyrrell, Luc Beaufort, Stephanie Dutkiewicz, Samantha Gibbs, Magdalena A. Gutowska, Renee Lee, Ulf Riebesell, Jeremy Young and Andy Ridgwell (2016), Why marine phytoplankton calcify, Science Advances, Vol. 2, no. 7, e1501822, doi: 10.1126/sciadv.1501822

A.W. Omta, B.W. Kooi, G.A.K. van Voorn, R.E.M. Rickaby, M.J. Follows (2016), Inherent characteristics of sawtooth cycles can explain different glacial periodicities, Climate Dynamics, 46, 557-569, doi: 10.1007/s00382-015-2598-x

Alice Soccodato, Francesco d’Ovidio, 1, Marina Lévy, Oliver Jahn, Michael J. Follows, Silvia De Monte (2016), Estimating planktonic diversity through spatial dominance patterns in a model ocean, Marine Genomics, doi: 10.1016/j.margen.2016.04.015

Song, H., J. Marshall, D.R. Munro, S. Dutkiewicz, C. Sweeney, and U. Hausmann (2016),
Mesoscale modulation of air-sea CO2 flux in Drake PassageJournal of Geophysical Research, 121, 6635-6649, doi: 10.1002/2016JC011714

Song, H., J. Marshall, M.J. Follows, S. Dutkiewicz, and G. Forget (2016), Source waters for the highly productive Patagonian shelf in the southwestern AtlanticJournal of Marine Systems, Volume 158, Pages 120–128, doi: 10.1016/j.jmarsys.2016.02.009

Tagliabue, A., O. Aumont, J.P. Dunne, S. Dutkiewicz, E. Galbraith, J.K. Moore, A. Ridgwell, C. Stock, M. Vichi, C. Volker, and A. Yool (2016), The iron model intercomparison project (FeMIP) Phase 1: Broad scale distributions and comparison to recent GEOTRACES sections,
Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 30, doi: 10.1002/2015GB005289

D. Talmy, A. C. Martiny, C. Hill, A. E. Hickman, and M. J. Follows (2016), Microzooplankton regulation of surface ocean POC:PON ratios, Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 30, doi: 10.1002/2015GB005273

Ward, Ben A. and Michael J. Follows (2016), Marine mixotrophy increases trophic transfer efficiency, mean organism size, and vertical carbon flux, PNAS, doi: 10.1073/pnas.1517118113

Zakem, E.J., and M.J. Follows (2016), A theoretical basis for a nanomolar critical oxygen concentration, Limnology and Oceanograph, doi: 10.1002/lno.10461


Brix, H., D. Menemenlis, C.N. Hill, S. Dutkiewicz, O. Jahn, D. Wang, K. Bowman, and H. Zhang (2015) Using Green’s Functions to Initialize and Adjust a Global, Eddying Ocean Biogeochemistry General Circulation Model, Ocean Modeling, 95, 1-14, doi: j.ocemod.2015.07.008

B.B. Cael (2015), The Good, the Bad, and the Tiny: A Simple, Mechanistic-Probabilistic Model of Virus-Nutrient Colimitation in Microbes, PLoS ONE, 10(11): e0143299. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0143299

Dutkiewicz, S., A.E. Hickman, O. Jahn, W.W. Gregg, C.B. Mouw, and M.J. Follows (2015),
Capturing optically important constituents and properties in a marine biogeochemical and ecosystem model, Biogeoscience, 12, 4447-4481, doi:10.5194/bg-12-4447-2015

Dutkiewicz, S., J.J. Morris, M.J. Follows, J. Scott, O. Levitan, S.T. Dyhrman, and I. Berman-Frank (2015), Impact of Ocean Acidification on the Structure of Future Phytoplankton Communities. Nature Climate Change, doi: 10.1038/nclimate2722

Levy, M., O. Jahn, S. Dutkiewicz, M.J. Follows, and F. d’Ovidio (2015)  The dynamical landscape of marine phytoplankton diversity, Journal of the Royal Society Interface, 12, 20150481, doi: 10.1098/rsif.2015.0481

Sauterey, B. and Ward, B. A. and Follows, M. J. and Bowler, C. and Claessen, D. (2015) When everything is not everywhere but species evolve: an alternative method to model adaptive properties of marine ecosystems Journal of Plankton Research, vol. 37, no. 1, pp. 28-47

Villar, E., Farrant, G.K., Follows, M.J., et al, 2015, Environmental characteristics of Agulhas rings affect interocean plankton transport, Science, Vol. 348 no. 6237, doi: 10.1126/science.1261447

Weitz, J. S. and Stock, C. A. and Wilhelm, S. W. and Bourouiba, L., et al. (2015) A multitrophic model to quantify the effects of marine viruses on microbial food webs and ecosystem processes Isme Journal, vol. 9, no. 6, pp. 1352-1364

Alexandra Z. Worden, Michael J. Follows, Stephen J. Giovannoni, Susanne Wilken, Amy E. Zimmerman, and Patrick J. Keeling (2015), Rethinking the marine carbon cycle: Factoring in the multifarious lifestyles of microbes. Science 13 February 2015: Vol. 347 no. 6223, doi: 10.1126/science.1257594


Barton, A.D., B.A. Ward, R.G. Williams, and M.J. Follows (2014), The impact of fine-scale turbulence on phytoplankton community structure. Limnology and Oceanography: Fluids and Environments, 4, 34-49, doi:  10.1215/21573689-2651533.

Clayton, S., T. Nagai and M.J. Follows (2014), Fine scale phytoplankton community structure across the Kuroshio Front. J. Plankton Res., 1-14, doi: 10.1093/plankt/fbu020.

Death, R., J.L. Wadham, F. Monteiro, A.M. Le Brocq, M. Tranter, A. Ridgwell, S. Dutkiewicz, and R. Raiswell (2014), Antarctic Ice Sheet fertilises the Southern Ocean, Biogeosciences, 11, 2635-2643, doi: 10.5194/bg-11-2635-2014.

Dutkiewicz, S., Ward, B. A., Scott, J. R., and Follows, M. J. (2014) Understanding predicted shifts in diazotroph biogeography using resource competition theory, Biogeosciences, 11, 5445-5461, doi: 10.5194/bg-11-5445-2014.

Kashtan, N., S.E Roggensack, S. Rodrigue, J.W. Thompson, S.J. Biller, A. Coe, H. Ding, P. Marttinen, R. Stocker, M.J. Follows, R. Stepanauskas and S.W. Chisholm (2014), Single cell genomics reveals hundreds of coexisting subpopulations in wild Prochlorococcus, Science, 344(6182), 416-420, doi: 10.1126/science.1248575.

Levy, M., O. Jahn, S. Dutkiewicz, and M.J. Follows (2014), Phytoplankton diversity and community structure affected by oceanic disperal and mesoscale turbulence, Limnology and Oceanography: Fluids and Environment, 4, 67-84, doi: 10.1215/21573689-2768549.

Moore, R.M., M. Kienast, M. Fraser, J. Cullen, C. Deutsch, S. Dutkiewicz, M.J. Follows, and C.J. Somes (2014), Substantial underestimation of nitrogen fixation suggested by hydrogen supersaturations in the Atlantic. Journal of Geophysical Research - Oceans , 119, 4340-4350, doi: 10.1002/2014JC010017.

Prowe, A.E.F., M. Pahlow, S. Dutkiewicz, and A. Oschlies (2014), How important is diversity to capture environmental change responses in ecosystem models? Biogeosciences, 11, 3397–3407, 2014, doi: 10.5194/bg-11-3397-2014.

Talmy, D., J. Blackford, N. J. Hardman-Mountford, L. Polimene, M.J. Follows, and R.J. Geider (2014) Flexible C : N ratio enhances metabolism of large phytoplankton when resource supply is intermittent. Accepted for publication in Biogeosciences,  11, 4881-4895, doi: 10.5194/bg-11-4881-2014

Vallina, S.M., M.J. Follows, S. Dutkiewicz, J. Montoya, P. Cermeno, and M. Loreau (2014),
Global relationship between phytoplankton diversity and productivity in the ocean, Nature Communications, 5, 4299, doi: 10.1038/ncomms5299.

Vallina, S. M. , B. A. Ward, S. Dutkiewicz, and M. J. Follows (2014), Maximal feeding with active prey-switching: a kill-the-winner functional response and its effect on global diversity and biogeography, Progress in Oceanography, 120, 93–109, doi:

Ward, B.A., S. Dutkiewicz, and M.J. Follows (2014), Modelling spatial and temporal patterns in size-structured marine plankton communities: top-down and bottom-up controls, Journal of Plankton Research, 0, 1-17, doi:10.1093/plankt/fbt097


Barton, A.D., Z.V. Finkel, B.A. Ward, D.G. Johns and M.J. Follows (2013), The roles of cell size and trophic strategy in North Atlantic diatom and dinoflagellate communities. Limnology and Oceanography, 58(1), 2013, 254-266, doi: 10.4319/lo.2013.58.1.0254

Clayton, S., S. Dutkiewicz , O. Jahn, and M.J. Follows (2013), Ocean eddies and dispersal maintain phytoplankton diversity, Limnology and Oceanography, Fluids and Environments, Volume 3: 182–197, doi: 10.1215/21573689-2373515

Dutkiewicz, S., J.R. Scott and M.J. Follows (2013), Winners and losers: Ecological and biogeochemical changes in a warming ocean, Global Biogeochemical Cycles, vol. 27, pp. 463, doi: 10.1002/gbc.20042

Fiksen, O., M.J. Follows and D.L. Aksnes (2013), Trait-based models of nutrient uptake in microbes extend the Michaelis-Menten framework Limnology and Oceanography, vol. 58, pp. 193, doi: 10.4319/lo.2013.58.1.0193

Goebel, N.L., C.A. Edwards, J.P. Zehr, M.J. Follows and S.G. Morgan (2013), Modeled phytoplankton diversity and productivity in the California Current System Ecological Modelling, vol. 264, pp. 37, doi: 10.1016/j.ecolmodel.2012.11.008

Kempes, C.P. et al. (2013), Morphological optimization for access to dual oxidants in biofilms (PNAS early online edition, doi: 10.1073/pnas.1315521110)

Lauderdale, J.M., A.C.N. Garabato, K.I.C. Oliver, M.J. Follows and R.G. Williams (2013) Wind-driven changes in Southern Ocean residual circulation, ocean carbon reservoirs and atmospheric CO2 Climate Dynamics, vol. 41, pp. 2145, doi: 10.1007%2Fs00382-012-1650-3

Ward, B.A., S. Dutkiewicz, and M.J. Follows (2013), Top-down and bottom-up controls in a global size-structured plankton food-web model. Journal of Plankton Research , 0, 1-17, doi: 10.1093/plankt/fbt097

Ward, B.A., S. Dutkiewicz, C.M. Moore and M.J. Follows. (2013), Iron, phosphorus, and nitrogen supply ratios define the biogeography of nitrogen fixation, Limnology and Oceanography, vol. 58, pp. 2059, doi: 10.4319/lo.2013.58.6.2059

Ward, B.A., M. Schartau, A. Oschlies,  A.P. Martin,  M.J. Follows, and T.R. Anderson (2013), When is a biogeochemical model too complex? Objective model reduction and selection for North Atlantic time-series sites, Progress in Oceanography, vol. 116, pp. 49, doi: 10.1016/j.pocean.2013.06.002


Ward, B.A., S. Dutkiewicz, O. Jahn, and M.J. Follows (2012), A size structured food-web model for the global ocean: Linking physiology, ecology and biogeography. Limnology and Oceanography, 57, 1877-1891, doi: 10.4319/lo.2012.57.6.1877

Dutkiewicz, S. (2012), Power in Modeling Virtual Marine Microbes, Microbes magazine, 7, 314-319, LINK (requires membership)

Dutkiewicz, S., B. A. Ward, F. Monteiro, and M. J. Follows (2012), Interconnection of nitrogen fixers and iron in the Pacific Ocean: Theory and numerical simulations, Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 26, GB1012, doi: 10.1029/2011GB004039

Kempes, C.P., S. Dutkiewicz, and M.J. Follows (2012), Growth, metabolic partitioning, and the size of microorganisms. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science, 109, 495-500, doi: 10.1073/pnas.1115585109

Monteiro, F. and M.J. Follows (2012) On nitrogen fixation and preferential remineralization of phosphorus. Geophys. Res. Lett., 39, L06607, doi: 10.1029/2012GL050897

Prowe, A.E.F., M. Pahlow, S. Dutkiewicz, M. Follows, and A. Oschlies (2012), Top-down control of marine phytoplankton diversity in a global ecosystem model. Progr. Oceanogr., doi: 10.1016/j.pocean.2011.11.016


Follows, M.J. and S. Dutkiewicz (2011), Modeling diverse communities of marine microbes, Annual Reviews of Marine Science, 3, 427-451, doi: 10.1146/annurev-marine-120709-142848

Karsenti, E., S.G. Acinas, P. Bork, C. Bowler, C. De Vargas, J. Raes, M. Sullivan, D. Arendt, F. Benzoni, J.-M. Claverie, M. Follows, G. Gorsky, P. Hingamp, D. Ludicone, O. Jaillon, S. Kandels-Lewis, U. Krzic, F. Not, H. Ogata, S. Pesant, E.G. Reynaud, C. Sardet, M.E. Sieracki, S. Speich, D. Velayoudon, J. Weissenbach, P. Wincker (2011), A Holistic Approach to Marine Ecosystems Biology, PLoS Biology, 9(10), 1-5, doi: 10.1371/journal.pbio.1001177

Monteiro, F., S. Dutkiewicz, and M.J. Follows (2011), Biogeographical controls on the marine nitrogen fixers, Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 25, GB2003, doi:10.1029/2010GB003902

Saito, M.A., E.M. Bertrand, S. Dutkiewicz, V.V. Bulygin, D.M. Moran, F.M. Monteiro, M.J. Follows, F.W. Valois, and J.B. Waterbury (2011), Iron conservation by reduction of metalloenzyme inventories in the marine diazotroph Crocosphaera watsonii.
Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1006943108

Ward, B.A., S. Dutkiewicz, A.D. Barton and M.J. Follows (2011), Biophysical Aspects of Resource Acquisition and Competition in Algal Mixotrophs, The American Naturalist, Vol. 178, No. 1 (July 2011), pp. 98-112, doi: 10.1086/660284


Barton, A.D., S. Dutkiewicz, G. Flierl, J. Bragg, and M.J. Follows (2010), Patterns of Diversity in Marine Phytoplankton, Science, 327, 1509 – 1511 doi: 10.1126/science.1184961

Barton, A.D., S. Dutkiewicz, G. Flierl, J. Bragg, and M.J. Follows (2010), Response to Comment on “Patterns of Diversity in Marine Phytoplankton”, Science, 329 (5991), 512-d. doi: 10.1126/science.1190048

Bragg, J., S. Dutkiewicz, O. Jahn, M. Follows, S.W. Chisholm (2010), Modeling selective pressures on picocyanobacterial nitrogen use in the global ocean, PLoS ONE, 5, e9569. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0009569

Hickman, A.E., S. Dutkiewicz, R.G. Williams, and M.J. Follows (2010), Modelling the effects of chromatic adaptation on phytoplankton comunity structure in the oligotrophic ocean. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 406, 1-17, doi:10.3354/meps08588

Monteiro, F., M.J. Follows and S. Dutkiewicz, 2010: Distribution of diverse nitrogen fixers in the global ocean. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 24, GB3017, doi:10.1029/2009GB003731

Saba, V.S., M.A.M. Friedrichs, M.-E. Carr,…, S. Dutkiewicz, … et al. (2010), The challenges of modeling depth-integrated marine primary productivity over multiple decades: A case study at BATS and HOT. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 24, GB3020, doi:10.1029/2009GB003655


Dutkiewicz, S., M.J. Follows and J. Bragg. Modeling the coupling of ocean ecology and biogeochemistry (2009), Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 23, GB4017, doi:10.1029/2008GB003405

Monteiro, F. and M. Follows (2009), On the interannual variability of nitrogen fixation in the subtropical gyres, Journal of Marine Research, 67, 1-20, doi: 10.1357/002224009788597944

Verdy, A., M. Follows and G. Flierl (2009), Evolution of phytoplankton cell size in an allometric model. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 379, 1-12, doi: 10.3354/meps07909 


Cermeno, P., S. Dutkiewicz, P.G. Falkowski, M. Follows, R.P. Harris, and O. Schofield (2008), The role of oceanic nutricline depth in regulating Earth’s carbon cycle. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 105, doi:10.1073/pnas.0811302106


Follows, M.J., S. Dutkiewicz, S. Grant and S.W. Chisholm (2007), Emergent biogeography of microbial communities in a model ocean, Science, 315, 1843-1846, doi: 10.1126/science.1138544

Hood, R.A., E.A. Laws, M.J. Follows and D.A. Siegel (2007), Modeling and prediction of microbial populations in the genomic era, Oceanography, 20, 155-165, doi: 10.5670/oceanog.2007.61